What are the main advantages of composites compared to metals?
- The most positive property that solidian FRP reinforcement brings with: the material does not corrode. With this knowledge, many advantages can be derived for building structures and components:
- up to 7 times higher characteristic tensile strength for carbon reinforcement
- lightweight and thinner structure
- easy to drill through
- very high alkaline resistance and insensitive to a wide range of aggressive media
- electrically conductive (special product versions of carbon reinforcement)
- electrically non-conductive (glass fiber reinforcement only)
- non-magnetizable (glass fiber reinforcement only)
- thermally insulating (glass fiber reinforcement only)
- high durability
- resource-saving due to the possibility of building thinner and thus saving cement, water, and aggregate and finally
- CO2 emissions saving due to saving material and energy (e.g. lower transportation cost of precast elements)
What positive effects does the use of carbon-reinforced concrete have on architecture?
- With the use of carbon-reinforced concrete (in short: carbon concrete), thinner, filigree components and building structures such as facade panels and shells can be realized, since unlike reinforced concrete, the concrete cover can be reduced to the minimum necessary for force transmission. Steel needs concrete as corrosion protection – fiber-reinforced plastics do not need any protection because they do not rust! In addition, with the use of textile fabrics as reinforcement, almost any shape can be produced as concrete components. Twisted structural components, expressionistic facades or very simple concrete furniture are just a few examples.
Why would you use carbon fiber as opposed to another material?
- Carbon reinforcement can be used as a corrosion-free pedant to steel reinforcement. There are no restrictions whatsoever with regard to applications. Should specific requirements, such as being free of magnetism, no thermal conductivity, or no electrical conductivity require the use of reinforcement equipped with these properties, fiberglass reinforcement is the best choice. Here, too, corrosion does not occur.
Can carbon reinforcement be used instead of steel?
- Yes, carbon reinforcement even has higher tensile strength, making them superior to steel in terms of force absorption. A major advantage is that carbon reinforcement does not corrode and thus the concrete cover can be significantly reduced.
Is it possible to reduce the weight of a concrete element with carbon concrete?
- There are some ways to reduce the weight of a concrete component. In the context of FRP reinforcement, however, the only possibility is to reduce the concrete cover required for the reinforcing steel to a minimum. FRP reinforcement does not corrode and therefore does not require concrete coverings that comply with the standards for reinforced concrete components. Thus, for example, the facing layer of a sandwich facade can be reduced by half in thickness, saving about 25% in element weight.
What is the future of textile and carbon-reinforced concrete?
- Regardless of whether there is glass fiber reinforcement or carbon reinforcement in the concrete, all fiber reinforced plastics have one thing in common and one decisive advantage over reinforcing steel: they do not corrode! And with this positive property, many advantages can be generated when building with carbon concrete compared to conventional construction with reinforced concrete. Today, fiber reinforced plastics are not yet widely used as reinforcement in the construction world, but in the future – when there are codes and standards for design in every country, for example – they will be used more frequently.
In which areas can carbon reinforced concrete be used?
- Carbon reinforced concrete (in short: carbon concrete) can generally find application in any structural component or building structure. However, today the applications for carbon reinforcements tend to focus on those found in outdoor areas or in direct contact with aggressive media. Examples include Hydraulic structures, maritime structures, wastewater treatment plants, agricultural structures, concrete facades (especially rainscreen cladding panels, sandwich walls), bridges (especially bridge caps and bridge decks), parking decks, gas station areas, and surfaces that place special demands on the cracking behavior of concrete. Glass fiber reinforcement can also be used when special requirements are placed on the structural component. The special material properties of glass fiber reinforcement, such as thermal insulation, non-magnetic and non-electrically conductive, make it economical to use in areas of high-voltage installations and electromagnetic fields, where the use of steel as reinforcement must be ruled out.
How to produce lightweight concrete elements?
- There are some possibilities to realize the lightweight construction with concrete In connection with FRP reinforcement, however, the only possibility is to reduce the concrete cover necessary for the reinforcing steel to a minimum. FRP reinforcement does not corrode and therefore does not require concrete coverings that comply with the standards for reinforced concrete components. Thus, for example, a shell can be reduced in thickness by half. The filigree appearance is an essential aspect besides the lighter component weight compared to reinforced concrete.
Is it possible to combine steel reinforcements and carbon reinforcements?
- Yes, generally it is possible to combine steel and carbon reinforcements, but you have to ensure that there is no contact between steel and carbon. To avoid the so-called “contact corrosion” it is necessary that the carbon reinforcement is isolated, e.g. with a plastic distance holder. please be aware that the isolation area does not disturb the bonding of the reinforcement with the concrete.
Is FRP relatively impervious to water?
- If the surface is completely covered with FRP then no water (or oxygen) can go through it.
What steps are needed to prepare the existing (damaged) concrete for using FRP as a re-strengthening application of the structure? What about cases where the rebar has corroded due to water infiltration and the surface concrete has popped off?
- All existing cracked and spalled concrete must be removed and the substrate repaired using appropriate concrete repair materials. Then the surface is prepared and FRP reinforcement can be installed. The design of the FRP reinforcement can be based on restoring the original (or required) strength of the structural components. This can be done by measuring the residual cross-sectional area of the steel bars after cleaning to remove rust or corrosion by products. If the member contains a high level of chloride the corrosion protection system may be required to protect the existing steel bars and prevent further deterioration. This should be done prior to FRP reinforcement.
If FRP is used on a new structure, what happens if water infiltrates through the structural members from cracks in the slab? Does the FRP cause the water to be retained in the structural members?
- If the structural member is properly designed then large cracks that lead to these conditions should not occur. However, if this condition occurs for any reason. Then FRP should not be used to cover the entire surface. Instead, FRP strips should be used and placed at given spaces to allow the concrete member to “breath” and moisture to move through the member.
Can FRP be used to repair water-damaged reinforced concrete beams and girders in a parking garage where the slab supported by the beams and girders is also a parking area?
- Yes, if the existing structural members have undergone deterioration (steel bar corrosion and spalling of concrete) due to water leakage, chloride intrusion or similar, FRP can be used to restore the capacity of the damaged structural components. However, proper repairs must be performed prior to the application of the FRP.
Can I replace damaged concrete members in structures with carbon reinforcement?
- All existing cracked and spalled concrete must be removed and the substrate repaired using appropriate concrete repair materials. Then the surface is prepared and FRP reinforcement can be installed. The design of the FRP reinforcement can be based on restoring the original (or required) strength of the structural components. This can be done by measuring the residual cross-sectional area of the steel bars after cleaning to remove rust or corrosion by-products. If the member contains a high level of chloride the corrosion protection system may be required to protect the existing steel bars and prevent further deterioration. This should be done prior to FRP reinforcement installation.
I want to reduce cracks in my concrete slab. What kind of product of solidian can I use?
- In general only epoxy impregnated FRP reinforcements are really able to reduce crack widths in concrete members. Due to the high stiffness, carbon reinforcements with epoxy impregnation are the most efficient material for those technical requirements. A special grid made for reducing cracks and crack widths is called solidian ANTICRACK. It’s a solidian GRID with a sanded surface.
What to consider for reinforcement in concrete furniture?
- For concrete countertops in kitchens that rest every 60 cm when installed and have a slab thickness of 3-4 cm, glass fiber reinforcement is sufficient. Here, a fine-mesh solidian GRID glass is recommended. For higher transport loads or recesses, a small carbon reinforcement is recommended, e.g. solidian GRID carbon. For longer, self-supporting components, such as tabletops or benches, a carbon reinforcement is recommended, e.g. in a bench with a length of 2 m and a slab thickness of 3 cm, a solidian GRID Q95-CCE-38 is used. This is also recommended for tabletops. If concrete is to be poured using the lamination method, a fine mesh mat can also be used. In general, the finer the reinforcement, the better the formability and drapability. For load-bearing concrete components, solidian recommends concrete of grade C50/60 or higher. The grain size depends on the thickness of the component. Concrete means minimum grain size 8 mm, for components below 3cm a fine concrete (mortar) is recommended.
What materials are solidian FRP reinforcement products made of?
- While the fiber material consists of carbon or glass fiber, the impregnation material, in turn, contains epoxy resin or styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR).
What is FRP reinforcement?
- FRP reinforcement is an abbreviation for Fiber Reinforced Plastics reinforcement. FRP reinforcement consists of high strength/high stiffness fibers combined with a suitable resin to form a rod or grid. The most commonly used fiber today is glass, combined with a vinyl ester, SBR, or epoxy resin, although carbon fibers with epoxy resins are more and more available for load-bearing applications. Glass FRP rods (e.g. solidian REBAR glass) have tensile strengths (mean value) in the region of 1.200 N/mm² and stiffness (Young’s modulus) of about 50 kN/mm² and higher. Carbon FRP rods with epoxy resin (e.g. solidian REBAR carbon) have higher tensile strengths (mean value) in the region of 2.500 N/mm² and stiffness (Young’s modulus) of about 230 kN/mm² and higher. Glass FRP grids (e.g. solidian GRID glass) have tensile strengths (mean value) in the region of 1.300 N/mm² and stiffness (Young’s modulus) of about 70 kN/mm² and higher. Carbon FRP grids with epoxy resin (e.g. solidian GRID carbon) have higher tensile strengths (mean value) in the region of 3.300 N/mm² and stiffness (Young’s modulus) of about 230 kN/mm² and higher.
What is carbon reinforced concrete?
- Carbon-reinforced concrete (or short: carbon concrete) is concrete for building structures reinforced with carbon reinforcement (mats or rebars). It’s a sustainable alternative to conventional concrete structures reinforced with steel (mats or rebars).
What is the difference between steel reinforced and carbon reinforced concrete?
- Main differences are:
- the material: steel vs. carbon composite as a reinforcement in the concrete
- the tensile strength of the reinforcement: carbon reinforcement is stronger than steel reinforcement, which means that the component can be built thinner or can be exposed to higher loads (provided that the limitation of cracks is not the primary concern).
What method exists for producing carbon reinforced concrete?
- Carbon concrete is the composition of carbon reinforcement and concrete – similar to steel-reinforced concrete, where the steel and concrete act together.
From what are carbon fibers obtained?
- Carbon fibers are industrially produced fibers made from carbon-containing starting materials that are converted into graphite-like carbon by pyrolysis. A distinction is made between isotropic and anisotropic types: isotropic fibers have only low strengths and less technical significance, while anisotropic fibers exhibit high strengths and stiffnesses with low elongation at break.
How is a carbon textile made?
- Carbon fiber has a diameter of about 5-8 micrometers. Usually, 1.000 to 24.000 individual fibers (filaments) are combined into a bundle (roving), which is wound onto spools. Further processing takes place, for example, on weaving machines or warps knitting machines to form textile structures.
Is carbon fiber stronger than steel?
- If you mean power transfer by “stronger”, then yes, as long as it is tensile. Carbon reinforcement is 6 to 7 times stronger in tension than conventional reinforcing steel.
What is the strength of carbon reinforcement?
- Carbon FRP rods with epoxy resin (e.g. solidian REBAR carbon) have tensile strengths (mean value) in the region of 2.500 N/mm². Carbon FRP grids with epoxy resin (e.g. solidian GRID carbon) have tensile strengths (mean value) in the region of 3.300 N/mm² and higher.
How durable is carbon reinforced concrete?
- Carbon-reinforced concrete – or carbon concrete for short – is more durable than conventional reinforced concrete due to the material behavior of the reinforcement. Normal steel (with the exception of high-quality stainless steel) corrodes if the concrete structure is not built of high quality, is damaged, or exposed to aggressive media (e.g. road salt, saline water, sewage, slurry, fuels, etc.). Corrosion of steel means damage to the steel (reduction of material in cross-section and thus loss of absorbable tensile force), to the concrete (spalling of the concrete cover) until finally, the entire structure may fail. The reinforcement made of fiber-reinforced plastics inserted in the carbon concrete cannot corrode and thus cannot cause any damage to the structure due to rust.
Is carbon reinforced concrete fire resistant?
- Compared to steel, fiber-reinforced plastics are not fire-resistant in general. However, since they are always encased in concrete, fire resistance of the overall component can also be achieved. The thickness of the concrete cover is decisive.
Is FRP reinforcement UV-resistant?
- No, generally they are not UV-resistant due to the resin matrix. Therefore we recommend storage protected from sunlight.
Does carbon fiber conduct electricity?
- In general, carbon fibers are electrically conductive. Conductivity can be contained or eliminated if the fibers are embedded in a resin matrix, as occurs in FRP reinforcements.
Test, design & approval
Which tests on the products are carried out by solidian as standard?
- For the glass and carbon fiber reinforcement mats solidian GRID and solidian ANTICRACK visual and tensile tests are performed as standard. If you would like to have additional tests performed on these products, please contact us before ordering. We will be happy to advise you.
Do you also provide static calculations for the constructions with FRP reinforcement?
- Our civil engineers will answer you for sure a lot of your questions concerning dimensions and calculations. We are in contact with excellent offices for structural analysis and will support you in finding the perfect partner.
Which standard can I use to design components with glass or carbon fiber reinforcement?
- Due to the novel material, there are only a few valid national standards for the dimensioning of components yet, e.g. in the USA, Canada, Italy. For Germany, there’s no standard for the dimension of FRP reinforcement existing. But dimensioning can, however, be carried out with the help of the available basic principles. External research institutes have tested and confirmed these principles intensively and in detail.
If standards for dimensioning are not used or do not exist, the use of the product in Germany is regulated by general building authority approvals (abZ). A comparable European regulation then provides for a European Technical Assessment (ETA).
Is there a design software from solidian for FRP products?
- We use an internal tool to make a structural calculation for inquiries from customers.
Do approvals exist for solidian FRP products?
- We do not currently have a general building approval for solidian GRID or solidian REBAR, but the approval processes have already been started. In the past, the German Institute for Structural Engineering (DIBt) granted abZ (Approval No.: Z-71.3-39) for the object of approval: solidian sandwich wall with the product solidian GRID Q121/121-AAE-38.
How expensive is carbon reinforced concrete compared to steel reinforced concrete?
- Due to the fact that fiber composites such as carbon reinforcement are more expensive in direct comparison to steel reinforcement, there are higher initial costs (investment costs) in the construction of concrete structures, but these are amortized over the lifetime of a concrete structure or building. Maintenance or renovation costs are minimized – moreover, there are also construction situations that result in a gain of usable building space that can be profitably rented or sold.
Health, safety & environment
Are the solidian FRP reinforcement materials harmful to health?
- No! When cured, epoxy-containing products are not harmful to health. Therefore, solidian reinforcement products can be used without hesitation. Please ensure – as with all work involving materials and with tools – that you wear appropriate, long-armed work clothing and observe the appropriate protective measures.
Carbon and glass fibers serve as fiber material for non-metallic reinforcement and are also suitable for use without hesitation.
How environmentally friendly are FRP composite materials?
- Work in the project group “Environmental Compatibility of C3 ” focused on characterization tests on ready-mixed fine concrete, cement/binders, fillers, and carbon fibers, as well as on leaching tests according to the European Long-term Leaching Test DSLT (DIN CEN/TS 16637-2:2014) on unreinforced and reinforced fine concrete specimens.
The leaching tests of the investigated carbon fibers have shown that they release practically no polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the leaching water. Furthermore, it was found that for the individual parameters no significant difference in the leaching behavior of the unreinforced and reinforced fine concretes occurs. The results available so far suggest that the new material carbon concrete can be classified as environmentally compatible and that no further environmental testing is therefore necessary.
How high are the resource and material savings if carbon reinforced concrete is used?
- In general, it always depends on the created component or structure. With solidian reinforcement bridges or facade panels have been executed where almost 50% of the material has been saved. And by this, we mean primarily concrete! This in turn reduces the use of cement and of our natural and scarce resources such as water and sand.
How do I dispose waste of solidian FRP reinforcements?
- The information that we know is how the wastes are disposed of in Germany. According to the German disposal legislation and classification the waste can be classified into three groups:
• Reinforcements of glass fibers (homogeneous): AVV 10 11 03 Waste of glass fiber
• Reinforcements of carbon fibers (homogeneous): AVV 07 02 13 Waste of plastics
• Reinforcements of glass and carbon fibers (mixed): AVV 17 09 04 Mixed building waste, except those with AVV 17 09 01, 17 09 02 or 17 09 03
- solidian has proven the applicability of the classifications for its products together with a German lawyer and its waste disposal contractor so that this is actually conforming to the German legislation. Especially in other countries please contact your local waste disposal contractor or other legal partners!
Is it possible to recycle carbon reinforced concrete? And if yes, how?
- Yes, the separation of carbon concrete into the components concrete and carbon reinforcement has already been tested and carried out without any problems. Existing and independently tested methods have been used for this purpose (see C³ – Carbon Concrete Composites e.V.: https://www.bauen-neu-denken.de/stoffkreislauf-carbonbeton/).
- The separated concrete can be recycled like standard concrete. For recycling or disposal of carbon reinforcement please contact your local waste management company or companies specialized in carbon recycling.
- We are part of research projects that strive to close the recycling loop of carbon fibers. These research projects are working to establish a recycling system as known from other building material
Do have concrete applications reinforced with solidian FRP products have a lower CO2-footprint than steel-reinforced concrete products?
- The evaluation of the CO2-footprint (Global Warming Potential = GWP) or other comparisons to evaluate the sustainability of a product should be done in form of a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of the end product over the whole life cycle. This includes all raw materials and energies that have been used to produce the part, the whole lifetime the part has been used including maintenance and other actions necessary to maintain the usability of the part, the removal phase, and the recycling. solidian is analyzing such life cycles with partners. Our results show that the potentials for reduction of raw materials (up to 50%) and GWP (up to 30%) are different depending on the part that is reinforced. The main advantages of solidians non-metallic reinforcements are the reduction of the concrete thickness of the part and resulting in the use of less concrete and cement, material that has a high CO2-footprint. Furthermore, the use of solidians non-metallic reinforcements may avoid the need to use surface coatings of the concrete parts, due to the ability to create a much finer crack distribution than the use of steel reinforcements. A foot passenger bridge project has used both advantages – reduction of part thickness and abandonment of surface coating – proving the numbers given above.
Do solidian FRP reinforcements have a lower CO2-footprint than steel reinforcements?
- solidian reinforcements do have a generally lower CO2-footprint than stainless steel reinforcements according to our public data. This is already true without taking into account other positive aspects like reduction of cement etc. But for standard steel, there is no general answer, who is better, if you are reducing the question down to the mere comparison of the CO2-equivalents of non-metallic and steel reinforcements and not consider the complete lifetime of the concrete part made of it. Standard steel in many cases has a lower CO2-equivalent than non-metallic reinforcements. This depends on the fiber material (carbon or glass), the type of reinforcement (grid or rebar), and the type of standard steel (regional energy mix of production, regional recycling rate). This is one of the reasons why you should not only consider the mere CO2-equivalent of the reinforcement but also evaluate the whole life cycle. Here solidian non-metallic reinforcements help to reduce cement, weight, maintenance, and other aspects that realize to reduce the CO2-footprint of the complete concrete part. And this in most cases creates a positive life cycle analysis result for non-metallic reinforcements independent from regional aspects.
Is it possible that solidian supplies LCA data of their FRP reinforcements or the products reinforced with these?
- solidian is having a look at the Life Cycle Analysis of our own products and the customer parts made of them since 2019 so that we learn our impact on sustainability. A part of this work is the determination of necessary material and process data of e.g. production processes, logistic processes, and raw materials that are bought from external partners like suppliers. So far we are not allowed to publish all data that we have got from suppliers. Therefore we cannot use all results that we have in public so far. If you have specific interest in such subjects, we ask you to contact solidian and we try to help as far as possible:
Is local bending of FRP reinforcement possible?
- The reinforcement can be formed into many shapes in the factory by us, but post-forming of edges, stirrups, etc. is not possible on the construction site or in the precast plant.
- However, it is possible to extend mats and bars with a defined bending radius (e.g. in round walls).
How can FRP reinforcement best be shortened or cut into shape?
- Important preliminary information!
In general, all FRP should be cut dust-free. For all work with cutting equipment, the appropriate protective measures must be observed, such as wearing cut-resistant gloves, safety goggles, ear protection if necessary, and a dust mask. For our solidian products and other carbon fiber-based products, no electrical devices that generate dust (e.g. cut-off grinders) may be used.
- For our mat reinforcement solidian GRID and solidian ANTICRACK, independent of glass or carbon fiber, sheet shears (battery or compressed air operation) are optimally suited. Other products based on a flat textile grid structure can also be processed with tin snips. Our bar reinforcement solidian REBAR or the mesh reinforcement solidian REMAT based on glass fiber can be shortened (manually) with a simple metal saw. We recommend processing our bar reinforcement based on carbon fibers with compressed air tin snips. The same procedure applies to all solidian products with an accumulated textile structure.
How can FRP reinforcing mats or rebars be connected to each other?
- In the case of FRP reinforcement meshes and rebars, a temporary connection can be made during concreting using commercially available cable ties. Metallic binders are not recommended or are to be excluded when using carbon reinforcement.
Is walking and driving on the FRP reinforcement allowed?
- In general yes, but you need to consider the following for our solidian GRID:
- WALKING – When entering the reinforcement, you have to ensure that the work is only carried out by trained personnel. For this purpose, we offer comprehensive support in terms of personnel instruction and on-site training by its application technology. It is essential to avoid stepping on cavities where reinforcement is laid out in order to avoid damage and breakage of the laid-out fiber material.
- DRIVING – Any kind of driving with vehicles or equipment is prohibited. This will result in damage to the fiber material. The intended performance of the reinforcement can therefore not be achieved.
Can FRP reinforcement be welded?
- Welding and soldering of fiber-reinforced plastics are not possible. In general: excessive heat influence on the FRP should be avoided by e.g. welding, as this influence can negatively affect the material structure and thus the load-bearing capacity of the reinforcement.
What do I have to consider when I want to install add-on parts on any FRP reinforcement?
- The installation of add-on parts by tying them together (wire, cable ties, etc.) is possible at any time. Please note the further measures to avoid contact corrosion of carbon fiber reinforcements in connection with steel reinforcements. The direct installation of add-on parts to FRP reinforcement by welding is not possible! The installation of add-on parts by welding near the FRP reinforcement should only be done after prior consultation with us or the engineering office. In general: excessive heat influence on the fiber plastic reinforcement should be avoided by e.g. welding, as this influence can negatively affect the material structure and thus the load-bearing capacity of the reinforcement.
How can the floating of the FRP reinforcement be prevented?
- Our reinforcement is lighter than conventional steel reinforcement. Therefore, some self-compacting concretes may float, but this can be avoided by adjusting the concrete formula or by using a suitable spacer or fixing system. For this purpose, we offer spacers, a fixing system, or can recommend a concrete recipe.
What is the sieving effect when concreting a concrete element with FRP reinforcement?
- The effect can occur during the concreting process with a too large grain size or too fine mesh reinforcement. This effect can be prevented by the lamination process (multi-layer application) during concreting. If multi-layer reinforcement is used, a minimum 38 mm mesh size and fine concrete with a maximum grain size of 8 mm are recommended.
Does the FRP reinforcement show on the concrete surface (ghost reinforcement)?
- This can occur in a similar way to the reinforcing steel reinforcement – partly due to the so-called sieving effect of the mesh during concreting of the component, partly due to the fines in the concrete. This can be avoided by changing the concreting sequence (paving in layers) or changing the concrete mix (maximum grain size and limestone powder). Furthermore, this can be avoided by using spacers that guarantee a minimum distance between formwork and reinforcement.
Do I need special spacers when using FRP reinforcement?
- Generally not – all conventional plastic spacers can be used. solidian recommends specially developed spacers for the solidian GRID mesh reinforcement for exposed concrete surfaces.
What do I need to consider when storing FRP reinforcement?
- FRP reinforcements should be protected against rain and sunlight, especially UV radiation when stored outdoors for several weeks. For short-term storage periods, we recommend protection against solar radiation, although free weathering in the Central European climate generally does not lead to any loss of load-bearing capacity. Due to the transverse pressure sensitivity of the composite material, mechanical effects should generally be avoided. Damaged fiber bundles (chipped resin, brittle areas, etc.) should not be installed, as the specified load-bearing capacity cannot be guaranteed.
What do I have to consider when transporting FRP reinforcement?
- Since FRP reinforcement mats are lighter and more flexible than conventional steel mats, they tend to deflect more during transport. Individual mats can be rolled up and transported. Suitable lifting gear must therefore be used, especially when lifting with a crane. The same applies accordingly to FRP reinforcing bars as loose bundles. Frequently, bar rebars are also supplied as coils (depending on the diameter of the bar), which make transport uncomplicated. Due to the transverse pressure sensitivity of the composite material, mechanical effects should generally be avoided. Damaged fiber bundles (chipped resin, brittle areas, etc.) should not be installed, as the specified load-bearing capacity cannot be guaranteed.
Can drilling, cutting, milling, and waterjet cutting be used for concrete moldings with FRP reinforcement?
- Yes, as with metal-reinforced concrete moldings, conventional methods can be used. The relevant occupational safety measures must be observed for all processes.